Blood Test Results

Blood test results explained

A blood test – sometimes referred to as a blood panel – is a laboratory examination of a blood sample used to check for a variety of things, including the functioning of certain organs (such as the liver and kidneys), infections and certain genetic disorders, as well as to assess an individual’s general health.[1] After the blood sample has been analyzed and the results compiled, a blood test report will in most cases be supplied to the testee. The report details the various components in the blood and at what level they are present. For those from non-medical backgrounds, blood test reports can be complex and difficult to decipher.

Blood test abbreviations

Blood test results generally use the metric system of measurement and various abbreviations, including:[2]

  • cmm: cells per cubic millimeter
  • fL (femtoliter): fraction of one-millionth of a liter
  • g/dL: grams per deciliter
  • IU/L: international units per liter
  • mEq/L: milliequivalent per liter
  • mg/dL: milligrams per deciliter
  • mL: milliliter
  • mmol/L: millimoles per liter
  • ng/mL: nanograms per milliliter
  • pg (picograms): one-trillionth of a gram

Blood test results components

A blood test is typically composed of three main tests: a complete blood count, a metabolic panel and a lipid panel.[3] Each tests for different things, which can be understood through a detailed analysis of the results. Confusingly, it is likely that the results of the three tests will not be differentiated from each other and, instead, will be listed under one large column, often labelled “Test Name.” Within each test are various sub-tests, which altogether give a broad picture of an individual’s health.

Complete blood count

The complete blood count (CBC) concentrates on the three types of blood cells: white blood cells, red blood cells and platelets. By measuring the volume of blood cells, the complete blood count allows for doctors to evaluate an individual’s overall health, as well as check for underlying conditions such as leukemia and anemia.[4]

The subtests within the complete blood count are:

White blood cell (WBC) count

Also known as leukocytes, white blood cells are a major component of the body’s immune system. A high white blood cell count can indicate the presence of infection, while a low count can point towards various conditions, including HIV/AIDS and lupus.[5]

Differential white blood cell count

This test measures the five main components of white blood cells and their proportion to each other. If the components are out of balance, this could indicate an infection, as well as a variety of medical conditions. Healthy proportions for each are:

  • Neutrophils: 40 to 60 percent of the total
  • Lymphocytes: 20 to 40 percent
  • Monocytes: 2 to 8 percent
  • Eosinophiles: 1 to 4 percent
  • Basophils: 0.5 to 1 percent

Red blood cell (RBC) count

Red blood cells carry oxygen to tissues throughout the body, making them important to its healthy functioning. A red blood cell count estimates the volume of red blood cells within an individual – if the results show a count above or below normal levels this can indicate various medical conditions. However, the test is unable to pinpoint the root causes of any irregularities, meaning, if this is the case, further tests will be necessary.[6]

Hematocrit (Hct) test

The hematocrit test indicates what proportion of the blood is made up of red blood cells. It is useful in diagnosing anemia, among other conditions.

Hemoglobin (Hgb) test

Hemoglobin is a protein contained within red blood cells that sends oxygen from the lungs to the body’s tissues. The Hemoglobin test is also useful in diagnosing anemia, with many practitioners preferring this test over the hematocrit test.[7]

Mean corpuscular volume (MCV) test

The average volume of red blood cells, or the space each red blood cell fills, is measured through this test. Results outside of the normal range can be a sign of anemia or chronic fatigue syndrome, among other conditions.

Mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) test

This test measures the average amount of hemoglobin present in each red blood cell. High levels are a possible indicator of anemia and low levels a possible sign of malnutrition.

Red cell distribution width (RDW or RCDW) test

This test measures the distribution of red blood cells, not their actual size. Levels outside of the normal range can indicate conditions such as anemia, malnutrition and liver disease.

Platelet count

Platelets are small blood cells that help the blood to clot. This test measures the amount of platelets present in the blood. High counts can indicate anemia, cancer or infection, while low counts can prevent wounds from healing and result in severe bleeding.[8][9]

Mean platelet volume (MPV)

This test measures the volume of platelets in the blood. A low count can cause irregularities with bleeding, while high counts can increase an individual’s risk of heart attack or stroke.

Comprehensive metabolic panel (CMP)

The comprehensive metabolic panel test, also known as a chemistry panel, measures the body’s glucose levels, fluid and electrolyte balance, as well as liver and kidney function.[10] It consists of a number of sub-tests:

Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) test

Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) is an enzyme mostly produced by liver cells.[11] High levels can be an indication of liver damage.

Albumin test

Albumin is a protein produced by the liver. Its volume within the liver can be measured via this test. Abnormal levels can be caused by liver or kidney problems.

Total protein test

This test measures the ratio of two types of proteins: albumin and globulin. Low protein levels can indicate various conditions, including liver and kidney disorders and malnutrition, while high levels can be a sign of inflammation, infection or bone marrow disorder.[12]

Alkaline phosphatase test

Alkaline phosphatase is an enzyme typically produced in liver and bone cells. Results outside of the normal levels can signal liver damage and bone problems such as rickets or bone tumors.[13]

Aspartate aminotransferase test

Aspartate aminotransferase is an enzyme usually found in red blood cells and muscle tissue, as well as the heart, pancreas, liver and kidneys. This test measures the levels of this enzyme in the body, with results above the healthy range indicating a variety of conditions, including some types of cancer, as well as liver, heart or kidney damage.[14]

Bilirubin test

This test can indicate kidney and liver dysfunction and can be useful in diagnosing conditions such as neonatal jaundice, anemia and liver diseases.[15]

Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) test

This test measures the volume of nitrogen in the blood. High levels can be caused by kidney damage or disease, while low levels may be a sign of malnutrition or severe liver damage.[16]

Calcium test

This test measures the levels of calcium in the blood. Low levels can indicate cancer, hyperparathyroidism, tuberculosis and other conditions, while high levels can indicate conditions including malnutrition, rickets and hypoparathyroidism.[17]

Chloride test

This test measures the body’s chloride levels. An increased level of chloride can indicate dehydration as well as kidney disorders and adrenal gland dysfunction.

Creatinine test

Creatinine is a chemical waste molecule that is important for creating muscle energy. Increased levels of creatinine can be a sign of kidney dysfunction.

Fasting blood sugar test

Blood sugar levels are are easily affected by recent food or drink intake. The fasting blood sugar test is therefore done after a minimum of six hours of fasting. Abnormal results can indicate diabetes, among other conditions.

Phosphorus test

This test measures the amount of phosphorus in the blood. Elevated levels can indicate problems with the kidneys and parathyroid glands, and they may be a sign of malnutrition or alcohol abuse.

Potassium test

Potassium aids the communication between nerves and muscles, regulates the heart and maintains muscle function. Diuretics (a substance or medication used to increase urination) can cause potassium levels to fall.

Sodium test

Sodium is a mineral that aids nerve impulses and muscle contractions, as well as balancing water levels. Irregularities are a possible indication of dehydration, adrenal gland disorders, corticosteroids, and kidney or liver disorders.

Lipid panel

The lipid panel consists of various tests used to measure the different types of triglycerides (fats) and cholesterol in the blood.

Total cholesterol test

This test measures the overall levels of LDL (bad) and HDL (good) cholesterol in the blood.

Triglycerides test

This test measures for triglycerides, a fat found in the blood. Irregularities are a possible risk factor for heart disease and other medical conditions.

HDL cholesterol test

HDL cholesterol, also known as high-density lipoprotein (or good cholesterol), is useful in protecting against heart disease. Low levels can increase the risk of heart problems.

LDL cholesterol test

LDL cholesterol, also known as low-density lipoprotein (or bad cholesterol), is linked to heart disease and clogged arteries.

Total cholesterol to HDL ratio test

Calculating this ratio can help determine an individual’s risk of developing a heart disease. It is worked out by dividing HDL cholesterol into total cholesterol. High levels are a possible indicator of heart problems.[18]


  1. NHS Choices. “Blood tests.” January 27, 2016. Accessed July 28, 2017.

  2. Newport Natural Health. “Blood Test Results: Your Guide to Understanding the Numbers.” March 6, 2015. Accessed July 28, 2017.

  3. Greatist. “The Ultimate Guide to Decoding Your Blood Test Results.” February 18, 2015. Accessed July 28, 2017.

  4. Mayo Clinic. “Complete blood count (CBC): Overview.” October 18, 2016. Accessed July 28, 2017.

  5. Mayo Clinic. “Low white blood cell count: Causes.” January 23, 2016. Accessed July 28, 2017.

  6. Healthline. “Red Blood Cell Count (RBC).” April 6, 2017. Accessed July 28, 2017.

  7. MedicineNet. “Hemoglobin: What are normal hemoglobin values?” Accessed July 28, 2017.

  8. Healthgrades. “What is high platelets?” September 1, 2016. Accessed July 28, 2017.

  9. Healthline. “Low Platelet Count (Thrombocytopenia).” February 8, 2016. Accessed July 28, 2017.

  10. WebMD. “Comprehensive Metabolic Panel - Topic Overview.” Accessed July 28, 2017.

  11. WebMD. “Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT).” Accessed July 28, 2017.

  12. Healthline. “Total Protein Test.” December 1, 2016. Accessed July 28, 2017.

  13. WebMD. “Alkaline Phosphatase.” Accessed July 28, 2017.

  14. WebMD. “Aspartate aminotransferase (AST).” Accessed July 28, 2017.

  15. Healthline. “Bilirubin Blood Test.” March 3, 2017. Accessed July 28, 2017.

  16. Healthline. “Blood Urea Nitrogen.” Accessed July 28, 2017.

  17. WebMD. “Calcium (Ca) in Blood.” Accessed July 28, 2017.

  18. Mayo Clinic. “Cholesterol ratio: Is it important?” April 28, 2015. Accessed July 31, 2017.