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Nephrolithiasis (Kidney Stones)

  1. What is nephrolithiasis (kidney stones)?
  2. Symptoms
  3. Risk factors & Causes
  4. Diagnosis
  5. Treatment
  6. Prevention
  7. FAQs
  8. Other names for nephrolithiasis

What is nephrolithiasis (kidney stones)?

Kidney stones, or nephrolithiasis, is a common condition in which hard collections, or calculi, form in the renal system, usually in the tube between the kidney and the bladder. These collections are the result of urine becoming saturated with minerals such as calcium oxalate, calcium phosphate, struvite, uric acid or cystine.[1]

Common types of stone are:[2][3]

  • Calcium oxalate stones
  • Calcium phosphate stones
  • Uric acid stones
  • Struvite stones
  • Cystine stones

Around 80 percent of all kidney stones, also called calculi, are calcium stones.[4]

These stones can vary in size from a few millimeters to a large staghorn shape a few centimeters in length.[1] Kidney calculi are more common in men than in women, and tend to occur in adults between the ages of 20 and 50. People between the ages of 35 and 45 are the most likely to be affected, but the disease can affect people of any age. It is rare to develop a stone for the first time over the age of 50.[5] Over half a million people in the US are affected by kidney stones every year.[5] Kidney stones are more common in whites and Asians than in people with African, Native American or African-American heritage.[3]

Symptoms occur when a stone leaves the kidney and enters the tighter ureter, the tube between the kidney and bladder, on its way to the bladder. A stone that is moving is much more painful than a stone that has not moved from its original place.[4]

Typical symptoms are severe pain in the back and belly, difficulty urinating and red or brown urine. Common treatment methods include good hydration, pain relief and anti-emetics. About 20% of patients require procedures such as lithotripsy, breaking up the calculus with shock waves, to remove the stones, when kidney stones have caused pain, infection or obstruction. Most people recover fully, without any complications.

Signs and symptoms of kidney stones

Typical symptoms are severe pain at the back and flank, difficulty urinating and passing only small amounts of urine at a time. The pain is often cramping or like a spasm and tends to come in waves. Some people might also have nausea, vomiting and may pass red or brown urine. Symptoms occur when a stone leaves the kidney and enters the tighter ureter, the tube between the kidney and bladder.

Other symptoms of kidney stones include:[1][6]

  • Nausea and vomiting, which diminish as pain is relieved
  • Fever and chills
  • Blood in the urine, known as hematuria
  • Cloudy or bad-smelling urine
  • Tender abdomen
  • Lack of urine
  • Urinary retention
  • Gravel or stones in the urine

Concerned that you or a loved one might have kidney stones or another kidney problem? Try a free Ada symptom assessment now.

Signs and symptoms of kidney stones in men

Men and women experience the symptoms of kidney stones in much the same way. However, men may experience the pain from a kidney stone slightly differently. In men, the pain from a kidney stone may radiate into the groin or the testicles. However, this does not mean that the stone is present in the testicles or in the groin.

Signs and symptoms of kidney stones in women

As stated above, men and women experience the symptoms of kidney stones in much the same way. The general symptoms of pain, nausea, fever, cloudy or bad-smelling urine, bloody urine, lack of urine or urinary retention, and stones or gravel in the urine will be experienced in the same way.

What does the pain from kidney stones feel like?

Pain is one of the most obvious symptoms of kidney stone obstructions. Where the pain is felt, and where it radiates to in the body, can indicate where the calculus is within the renal system. The pain that accompanies a kidney stone is felt acutely in the flank (the side) and radiates down the groin on the same side. Not all stones cause pain that spreads. Some stones may cause no pain at all.

Pain is caused not directly by the kidney stone itself, but instead it results from the effect that the stone has on the body by leading to muscle spasms, inflammation and irritation at and around the site of the obstruction.[5] Factors that influence how painful the kidney stone is, include:[4]

  • Whether the stone is moving
  • Whether it is twisted or tilted in the ureter or urethra
  • Whether the obstruction is complete or partial
  • Where exactly it is in the renal system
  • How big the stone is

Good to know: Pain from kidney stones is often described as excruciating and intermittent, and often occurs in cycles that last between 20 minutes and an hour. People with painful kidney stones often cannot keep still because of the pain. They are often ashen, pale and sweaty, with a tender abdomen.[6]

Worried that you might have kidney stones? Ada is ready to start your free symptom assessment.

Risk factors and causes of kidney stones

Kidney stones are more common in men, and in adults between 20 and 50 years of age, but very rare in children. It is most common in adults who have a low fluid intake and consequently produce little urine, which can contain high amounts of stone-forming substances.[7]

Kidney stones are also more common in people who have gout (in the case of uric acid stones), or who have a family member who also suffers from kidney stones. The genes that can increase a person’s chance of developing nephrolithiasis have been identified.[7]

Infections of the urinary tract may lead to kidney stones. Other general risk factors are dehydration and being overweight or obese.

Other risk factors include:[1][5][8][9]

  • Anatomical abnormalities such as horseshoe kidney or ureteral stricture
  • Hyperparathyroidism, i.e. an overactive parathyroid gland
  • Metabolic disorders, such as hypercalciuria, hyperuricosuria or chronic metabolic acidosis
  • Intestinal problems such as Crohn’s Disease
  • Bariatric (weight-loss) surgery), such as a sleeve gastrectomy or a gastric bypass
  • Living in a hot climate and its risk of dehydration
  • Too much exercise and its risk of dehydration
  • Too little exercise and its risk of obesity
  • A diet high in protein, salt or sugar, especially fructose and sucrose

Some medications can increase the risk of forming kidney stones. These include among others:[4]

  • Indinavir, an antiretroviral medication
  • Atazanavir, an antiretroviral medication
  • Guaifenesin, an expectorant medication
  • Triamterene, a medication used for the treatment of hypertension and edema
  • Silicate, which is used in antacids
  • Sulfasalazine, a medication used for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, colitis and Crohn's disease
  • Sulfadiazine, a drug used for the treatment of otitis media ear infections
  • Ceftriaxone, a drug used for the treatment of bacterial infections

Stones caused by struvite, as opposed to calcium, are caused by urea-splitting bacteria such as Klebsiella, Pseudomonas and Proteus species, and indicate an underlying urinary tract infection. Struvite stones are more common in women than in men,[3] and are responsible for between 1 and 5 percent percent of kidney stones.[1] They will reoccur if the underlying UTI is not treated.[6]

Kidney stones caused by uric acid are associated with acidic urine, usually with a pH of below 5.5.[4] These account for only around 10% percent of stones and are often associated with gout. Chemotherapy for conditions such as leukemia and lymphoma, as well as these conditions themselves, which increase tissue breakdown, may also lead to the urine becoming more acidic.

If you are experiencing symptoms such as those listed above, and are concerned that the cause may be kidney stones, try a free Ada symptom assessment.

Diet and kidney stones

It is generally thought that certain foods can increase risk of developing some kinds of kidney stones. These include animal protein from meats or fish, in the case of uric acid stones, and some vegetables, drinks and nuts in the case of calcium oxalate stones .[5][4] Excessive salt and excessive sucrose and fructose intake have in some studies also been shown to overall increase the risk of stones forming, and should therefore be avoided in excess and only consumed in moderation.

Calcium oxalate stones and diet

People who have had calcium oxalate stones in the past or who have a high rate of oxalate excretion should reduce consumption of certain foods and food types, including:[10]

  • Rhubarb
  • Spinach
  • Cocoa
  • Tea
  • Nuts
  • Vitamin C

Uric acid stones and diet

High intake of purine in the diet causes the body to produce large amounts of monosodium urate. The risk of developing uric acid stones has a hereditary component in some people, meaning it tends to run in the family.[5]

People with uric acid stone disease or hyperuricosuric calcium oxalate stones should reduce consumption of:[10]

  • Calf thymus
  • Liver
  • Kidneys
  • Poultry skin
  • Herrings with skin
  • Anchovies
  • Sprats

Hereditary and genetic risks of kidney stones

There is some evidence that a predisposition to developing certain types of kidney stones may, at least partly, be hereditary.[11] Risk factors, such as high levels of uric acid in the blood and high levels of calcium in the urine, for example, may be influenced by genetic factors.[12]

Cystine stones are rare and may be caused by genetic factors[5] that cause the body to reabsorb cystine, ornithine, lysine and arginine from the kidneys. In cases where cystine stones develop, the urine is saturated to above a certain level with cystine , causing crystals to be deposited and stones to form.[4]

Diagnosing kidney stones

Diagnosis of kidney stones is often based on the typical symptoms and physical examination. A urine dipstick test may show blood and pus in the urine, and help confirm the presence of a kidney stone.

A person being examined for kidney stones will be asked about their medical history and will be physically examined. They will also be given a computerised tomography (CT) scan. X-rays and ultrasound tests can determine the presence of stones, but CT scans are preferred during the diagnostic process, because they can determine the size and location of the stone. MRI scans are not generally helpful.[6] In pregnant women; a kidney ultrasound is usually ordered. An ultrasound of the kidneys and ureters is also often used to diagnose kidney stones in children, although in some cases a CT scan may also be needed.[13]

The overall health of the kidneys may be tested using:[2][4]

  • 24-hour urine collection test, once the patient is free of stones, to measure changes in the values for urinary electrolytes, reduced urine volume and to determine the underlying metabolic cause for nephrolithiasis
  • Blood tests, if the person is feverish and may have an infection

The calculus/kidney stone will be analysed after it has been passed in the urine or extracted during surgery.[6]

People with the following conditions may need further tests, as determined by their physicians:[6]

  • Sarcoidosis
  • Myeloma
  • Bone metastases
  • Solitary kidney
  • Urinary tract anomalies

Treatment of kidney stones

The treatment of kidney stones varies depending on the size of the kidney stone and the severity of the symptoms. Small stones usually pass with no need for medical assistance. Drinking plenty of water may help to flush the stone from the urinary system.

Pain medication is often needed while passing a renal calculus. In severe cases, opiates may be prescribed. However, in most cases, acetaminophen/paracetamol is usually sufficient.[1][5] 80 percent of stones pass without serious medical intervention and needing no inpatient treatment. About 20 percent lead to situations that require hospitalization.[4]

People may need to be admitted to hospital if the following factors are present:[1]

  • Anuria, when the kidneys do not produce urine
  • Fever
  • Persistent or severe pain
  • Inadequate fluid intake as a result of nausea or vomiting, resulting in dehydration
  • Poor social support while they are living alone at home
  • Inability to access follow-up outpatient care
  • Pregnancy
  • Being older than 60 years of age

Good to know: If a fever is present, infection may also be present. Because infection can be very serious, the affected person should receive medical treatment as soon as possible.[1]

Treatment at home may be possible for most people, because most stones smaller than 5mm pass on their own and do not cause infection or need surgical help to pass. People may be cared for at home if:[1]

  • Their pain has been relieved and can be managed with acetaminophen/paracetamol
  • They can drink fluids
  • They have good social support
  • They have no complications, such as fever or urinary blockage

Medication for kidney stones

Painkillers, antiemetics and antidiuretics are commonly used in both inpatient and outpatient treatment of kidney stones. Painkillers, such as morphine may be used to control severe pain; moderate or mild pain can be controlled with acetaminophen or codeine. Antibiotics are only used in cases where an infection has developed.[4]

Other medications used to treat uric acid kidney calculi are:[4]

  • Uricosuric agents, which increase the amount of uric acid excreted
  • Alkalinizing agents, such as sodium bicarbonate and potassium citrate

Surgery for kidney stones

Big stones, with a diameter of more than 10mm and which are lodged in the ureter, might need assistance to pass, especially if they are blocking the passage of urine. Stones with a diameter of less than 10mm that are in the distal ureter and do not have complications such as infection, should be removed if they have not passed on their own within four to six weeks.[14] This can involve lithotripsy (breaking up the stone with shock waves), or the surgical removal of stones, or the removal of the stone with an endoscope, a small tube with a camera and surgical tools.

Shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) is a non-invasive procedure where sound waves are used to break the stones into fragments small enough to pass through the ureter and out of the body through the urethra. If lithotripsy is not used, other endoscopic methods are possible, such as uteroscopic lithotripsy (URS) or percutaneous nephrostomy.

In uteroscopic lithotripsy, an endoscope is introduced to the urethra and moves through the bladder into the ureter to the stone’s location. The stone is then removed. In cases where access to the urethra is complicated because of an enlarged prostate, the endoscope will be introduced via a small incision in the bladder.

In a percutaneous nephrostomy, an endoscope is introduced via a small incision in the skin of the flank, directly into the kidney.

Some very large or complicated stones may need open surgery.

Struvite stones must be removed, as they are infectious or infected foreign bodies. The stones will reoccur if the urinary tract infection that underlies their formation is not resolved.[6]

Preventing kidney stones

Preventing kidney stones from forming involves changing the diet of the affected person and increasing the amount of fluid, preferably clear fluids such as water, that they consume . In all cases, it is important to remain well hydrated, consuming about 2.5 quarts of water each day.[8] It is also important to limit sugar and salt in the diet and to eat a diet high in fruit and vegetables.[5] In cases where the person is overweight, they should lose the excess weight.

Good to know: High-animal protein diets and crash diets should be avoided, as they can unbalance the pH and chemical makeup of urine.[5] For more information, see the section on prevention of kidney stones, above.

In calcium oxalate stones, which are the most common kind, prevention measures include diets that are low in salt, sugars and animal protein,[6] and reduced consumption of oxalate-rich foods.[8]

People who are concerned about the role their diets may play in the formation of kidney stones, should consult their physicians, specialist nephrologists and/or a dietitian.

Good to know: Low-calcium diets are not indicated for the prevention of calcium oxalate stones, as low calcium diets cause oxalate reabsorption to increase.[8]

In cases of uric acid stones, allopurinol will be prescribed to prevent high levels of uric acid building up in the blood. Alkalinizing agents may also be prescribed to make urine more alkaline.

FAQs

Q: Do kidney stones recur once they have been treated?
A: Yes. People who have had a kidney stone, have a 50 percent chance of developing another stone within five to seven years.[5] Maintaining high fluid intake, as well as making dietary changes and maintaining a healthy weight, can help postpone the recurrence of stones.[4]

Q: Can kidney stones cause long-term kidney damage?
A: Yes. Complications can occur, in some cases within hours, that can be serious in themselves. These include sepsis and high fever. Struvite stones, as noted above, are the result of an underlying UTI, which could potentially cause long-term damage if left untreated. In some cases, pyelonephritis may result if kidney stone obstructions are left untreated, and renal damage may be permanent.

Q: What are the complications of kidney stones?
A: Complications include:

Q: What is the difference between kidney stones and bladder stones?
A: Kidney stones develop in the kidneys and move into the ureter, bladder and urethra. Bladder stones develop in the bladder. Bladder stones make up about 5 percent of all calculi found in the renal system. They are usually the result of foreign bodies, infection and obstruction, and the most common cause of bladder stones is urinary stasis. The majority of bladder stones occur in men who have bladder outflow problems, which cause urine to remain in the bladder after urination.[1]

Q: What are some common foods that contain high levels of oxalate and may therefore need to be eaten only in very low amounts or not at all?
A: It is best to speak to a physician or dietitian before adding or eliminating foods. Not every case of kidney stones has the same cause, and therefore some of the foods listed below may not be relevant to the disease. Furthermore, this list is not exhaustive.

Some fruits, vegetable and processed foods are high in oxalate; oxalate is involved in the formation of the most common kind of stones, calcium oxalate stones. These foods include rhubarb, spinach, beetroot, avocado, oranges, raspberries, dates, grapefruit and kiwi fruit. Nuts and nut butter may also be best avoided by some people. Bran flakes and potato chips may also be problematic.[15][16]

Q: Can coffee, tea or other caffeinated drinks cause kidney stones?
A: Coffee and tea, in fact, reduce the risk of developing kidney stones, and this is true of both caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee and tea. Caffeinated drinks have a somewhat diuretic effect, which has a protective effect, while decaffeinated drinks could possibly have a protective effect due to the antioxidant chemicals they contain.[17]

Research has revealed that drinking coffee may have several different possible effects - some contrasting each other - on a person’s likelihood of developing kidney stones. Studies have shown that consuming caffeine actually increases the amount of calcium that is excreted in the urine, which should in fact increase the risk of developing calcium oxalate kidney stones [18] , which are the most common type of kidney stones. However, despite this, consuming coffee generally appears to lower the risk of kidney stones.[19]

Q: Can alcohol cause kidney stones?
A: Beer and red wine may in fact lower the risk of developing kidney stones.[17] It is not certain whether any other alcoholic beverages such as whiskey, rye, bourbon or vodka may have a similarly protective effect, and this should therefore not be assumed. However, there are many psychological and physical health risks associated with alcohol consumption, for example, alcohol dependency and liver disease like liver cirrhosis.

Q: Can sports/energy drinks or soft drinks cause kidney stones?
A: There is some evidence that the degree to which one is consuming soft drinks or sports/energy drinks contributes to increasing one’s risk of developing kidney stones, but this depends on what is used to sweeten the drink.

Fructose is a natural sugar used to sweeten soft drinks, fruit punch, and sports drinks and it is associated with the development of gout and kidney stones, as well as obesity. While some studies have shown that fructose consumption has only a limited effect on the excretion of uric acid,[20] fructose has been shown to increase the amount of calcium, oxalate and uric acid that the body excretes in the urine.

It is possible that drinking a fructose-sweetened soda once a day increases the risk of developing kidney stones, compared to drinking artificially-sweetened soda or sports drinks.[17] Furthermore, some studies have shown that cola-based soft drinks increase the risk of developing kidney stones more than non-cola sodas.[17]

Q: How are gout and kidney stones related?
A: Both gout and some kinds of kidney stones can be caused by high levels of uric acid in the body,[21] and there is some evidence that kidney stones and chronic kidney disease are both more common in people who have gout.[22] For more information, see this resource on gout and this resource on podagra (gout affecting the big toe).

Q: Can kidney stones develop after bariatric surgery?
A: Yes; it is relatively common for someone who has had bariatric surgery to develop kidney stones. Bariatric surgery can help decrease the risk of sleep apnea, hypertension and diabetes in overweight people who have had the surgery, but some types of bariatric surgery do affect the way that the body processes nutrients.[23] It is also possible that the same factors that made bariatric surgery, such as diabetes, necessary in the first place may contribute to the risk of developing kidney stones afterwards.[23]

Q: Does a prostatectomy increase your risk of developing kidney stones?
A: No. Removal of the prostate does not affect kidney function, and therefore cannot increase your risk of developing kidney stones.

Q: Do gallstones and/or gallbladder removal increase your risk of developing kidney stones?
A: Kidney stones and gallstones are not directly related, but studies have shown that people who have gallstones may also be at higher risk of developing kidney stones and vice versa.[24] The processes that cause gallstones may be related to the processes that cause kidney stones. However, how nephrolithiasis and cholelethiasis interact isn’t yet well studied or -understood.

Q: What color are kidney stones?
A: The composition of kidney stones affects what color they are. Because the colors can vary, it is not always possible to correctly identify what kind of stone has caused the problem just by looking at it; in most cases, stones will be sent away for laboratory analysis. However, speaking broadly, the colors stones come in include:[25][26]

  • Calcium oxalate: black or dark brown
  • Calcium phosphate: dirty white or yellowish
  • Uric acid: ranging from yellowish and brownish to red or orange
  • Struvite: dirty white or yellowish
  • Cystine: pinkish or yellowish, often with a grainy outer surface.

It is possible to have more than one sort of stone, and it is also possible for stones to be made up of more than one kind of substance.

Other names for nephrolithiasis

  • Ureterolithiasis
  • Ureteral stone
  • Kidney stones

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  16. University of Chicago. “How To Eat A Low Oxalate Diet”. Accessed 28 May 2018.

  17. Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology. “Soda and Other Beverages and the Risk of Kidney Stones.”. July 2013. Accessed 12 August 2018.

  18. The Journal of Urology. “Acute caffeine effects on urine composition and calcium kidney stone risk in calcium stone formers.”. August 2004. Accessed 13 August 2018.

  19. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. “Caffeine intake and the risk of kidney stones.”. December 2014. Accessed 12 August 2018.

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  21. Medscape. “Gout and Pseudogout.”. 14 June 2018. Accessed 13 August 2018.

  22. Arthritis Research and Therapy. “Gout and risk of chronic kidney disease and nephrolithiasis: meta-analysis of observational studies”. 2015. Accessed 12 August 2018.

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  25. StoneDisease.org. “Kidney Stone Photos”. Accessed 12 August 2018.

  26. Medscape. “Uric Acid Stones”. 11 June 2018. Accessed 25 September 2018.